Low Back Ache (LBA)
Most of adults may experience significant low back pain sometime during their lifetime.
Low back pain usually involves muscle spasm of the supportive muscles along the spine. Also, pain, numbness and tingling in the buttocks or lower extremity can be related to the back. There are multiple causes of low back pain. Prevention of low back pain is extremely important, as symptoms can recur on more than one occasion. Common causes of LBA are:
Muscle strain: The muscles of the low back provide the strength and mobility for all activities of daily living. Strains occur when a muscle is overworked or weak.
Ligament sprain: Ligaments connect the spinal vertebrae and provide stability for the low back. They can be injured with a sudden, forceful movement or prolonged stress.
Poor posture: Poor postural alignment (such as slouching in front of the TV or sitting hunched over a desk) creates muscular fatigue, joint compression, and stresses the discs that cushion your vertebrae. Years of abuse can cause muscular imbalances such as tightness and weakness, which also cause pain.
Age. “Wear and tear” and inherited factors may cause degenerative changes in the discs (called degenerative disc disease), and joint degeneration of the facet joints of the spine (called degenerative joint disease). Normal aging causes decreased bone density, strength and elasticity of muscles and ligaments. These effects can be minimized by regular exercise, proper lifting and moving techniques, proper nutrition and body composition, and avoidance of smoking.
Disc bulge. or herniation, can cause pressure on a nerve, which can radiate pain down the leg. This generally responds well to a strengthening and stretching program and rarely requires surgery.
Other causes of low back pain include bladder/kidney infection, endometriosis, cancer, or ovarian problems
Role of Physiotherapy in the Management of LBA: Physiotherapy has a primary role in the management of and recovery from LBA. Interventions focus on pain relief and the prevention of future occurrence of pain and injury, as well return to function.
Physiotherapy management of LBA includes assessment and diagnosis, exercise prescription, education, self-management strategies, workplace intervention, manual therapy and modalities.
Physiotherapists may also triage LBA patients to ensure they receive the most appropriate treatment, conservative or surgical management. Physiotherapist-led spinal triage clinics reduce wait times to outpatient orthopedic departments, reduce the ordering of unnecessary diagnostics and enable early access to physiotherapy by directing patients to conservative management treatment options in a timely manner.
Stroke causes damage to the part of your brain that controls movement, you may experience weakness or paralysis on one side of your body and problems with moving and carrying out everyday activities. This article explains how physiotherapy can help you to recover, what your treatment might involve and how you can see a physiotherapist. Patient may experience weakness, or even complete paralysis (called hemiplegia) in the muscles of one side of your body. This can make it difficult to move or use your limbs and get about.
The affected side of the body may feel different. Affected limbs may feel heavy because the weakness makes them difficult to move. Some people have more unusual sensations such as pins and needles, hot and cold sensations or feel as though water is running down their limb. Occasionally they can be painful. The patient may have problems with your posture and balance, making it difficult to stay upright and you may be more likely to have a fall. Joints on the affected side, such as shoulder, may be vulnerable to injury, for example if your arm is pulled or its weight is allowed to ‘drag.’ This can cause a partial dislocation (called subluxation) or ‘frozen shoulder’, where shoulder becomes painful and difficult to move.
After a stroke, our brains cannot grow new cells to replace the ones that have been damaged, so your recovery depends on your brain’s ability to reorganise its undamaged cells and make up for what has been lost. This is called neuroplasticity. Physiotherapy can provide expert practical guidance to help.
Physiotherapists often work with other members of the stroke team to make sure they can help with the range of problems that stroke can cause. It is important to be as active as possible as soon as you can after your stroke, so the team will encourage you to get up and about as much as you are able to, whether this is continuing with your previous activities or just sitting in a chair.
In the early stages, and for people with relatively mild problems, physiotherapy will focus on preventing complications and restoring your ability to move and be active again.
Sports Injury Rehabilitation
Participating in a variety of sports is fun and healthy for children and adults. However, it's critical that before you participate in any sport, you are aware of the precautions you can take to prevent injuries. Warming up, strengthening your muscles and cooling down after any type of exercise are excellent ways to help prevent sports injuries.
Unfortunately, even when taking these and other precautions, injuries still occur. The good news is that many pains, sprains, tears and other sports injuries can be avoided with a little common sense and a little information about injury prevention.
There are two kinds of sports injuries: those that happen suddenly (acute) and those that develop gradually as a result of repeating an action over and over again (overuse). Here are some common injuries in each category: Acute injuries are Contusions • Fractures • Joint dislocation • Ligament tears • Joint sprains. Overuse injuries: • Heel spur (Plantar Fasciitis) • Carpal Tunnel • Shin splints • Muscle strains • Stress fractures • Tendonitis • Golfer’s elbow, etc.
Sports Injury Preventive measures:
1. Choose the right sport: Make sure the sports you do are safe and appropriate for you. For example, while weight-bearing exercises such as aerobics and jogging are great activities for most people, they may not be good choices for people who have certain joint conditions.
2. Suit up properly: Use proper protective gear and any special equipment or clothing that is recommended for your sport. For example, runners should choose shoes that combine the appropriate amount of shock absorption and motion control for their particular needs.
3. Learn proper technique: Take lessons to make sure you’re using proper form for your sport. Good technique is an important part of injury prevention.
4. Condition your body: Getting in proper condition before you begin a sport will make the whole experience more enjoyable and could spare you from developing a preventable injury.
5. Develop a balanced fitness program: Whether you’re planning on playing an organized sport or training for your first marathon, there are three essential components to achieving total fitness and avoiding injury in the process: cardiovascular fitness, strength and flexibility.
6. Follow the rule of warm-up, stretch and cool down.
7. Take time off: Staying physically active is great, but it’s important to take time off, too. When you put your body through rigorous workouts, you need time to recover physically. This is increasingly true the older you get. So that remember — rest your body at least one day each week
Sports Injury Rehabilitation:
1. Help yourself with- P. R.I.C.E. (Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression & Elevation)
2. Cross-train during recovery: To maintain your endurance and overall conditioning during your rehabilitation period, consider cross-training. You can give your injury “relative rest” by shifting the focus of your exercise to another part of the body. For example, you can swim after an ankle injury.
3. Ask or medical and Professional help for comprehensive treatment.
Developmental Delay Management
Developmental Delay Treatment in Kolkata
What is child development?
A child’s growth is more than just physical. Children grow, develop, and learn throughout their lives, starting at birth. We can find out about a child’s development by how they play, learn, speak, move, and behave.
What is developmental delay?
Developmental delay describes the behaviour of young children whose development in key mental and physical areas is slower than other children of the same age. The delay can be in any of a number of areas of development, such as movement (motor control), speaking, thinking, playing, or self-care skills. A developmental delay is diagnosed when a child is assessed as being more than “a little behind” in performing everyday skills. The term defines a substantial lag in performance, and may be used to describe any type of delay in 1 or more of the following 5 skill areas:
Fine and gross motor (movement)
Social and emotional
Speech and language
Activities of daily living
These delays may or may not result from a specific medical condition. For example, a child with Down syndrome is identified at or before birth as having the syndrome, but also can have developmental delay. This fact holds true for any child with a disability, such as autism or cerebral palsy. Children without a specific medical condition, however, may still have a developmental delay. Early assessment is key. Parents should express any concerns, even the slightest ones, to their paediatrician or physical therapist.
How is Developmental Delay Diagnosed?
Developmental delay is diagnosed by using tests designed to score a child's movement, communication, play, and other behaviours compared with those of other children of the same age. These tests (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Griffiths) are standardized—scored on hundreds of children—in order to determine a normal range of scores for each age. If children score far below the average score for their age, they are at risk for developmental delay. Developmental delay can identifiable as early as from just after birth to 5 months of age by Prechtl’s General Movements Assessment (GMA)
What are General Movements?
General Movements (GMs) are distinct spontaneous movement patterns that are evident in babies before birth and after birth up to 20 weeks of age (corrected age). They are seen spontaneously when the baby is awake, calm and alert and not externally stimulated (such as a parent playing or talking with them). You may be familiar with other spontaneous motor patterns seen in young babies such as startles, twitches, yawning and breathing movements. GMs involve the whole body and are variable, complex, fluent and elegant.
How Can a Physical Therapist Help?
Your physical therapist will first evaluate your child, conducting an appropriate and detailed test to determine the child's specific strengths and weaknesses. Your physical therapist will discuss your observations and concerns with you. If the child is diagnosed as having developmental delay, your physical therapist will problem-solve with you about your family's routines and environment to find ways to enhance and build your child's developmental skills.
The physical therapist will also teach the family what they can do to help the child practice skills during everyday activities. The most important influence on the child is the family, because they can provide the opportunities needed to achieve each new skill.
Your physical therapist will explain how much practice is needed to help achieve a particular milestone. A child learning how to walk, for example, covers a lot of ground during the day; your physical therapist can provide specific advice on the amount and type of activities appropriate for your child at each stage of development.
Early Intervention Services:
If your child is eligible for Early Intervention Services, we provide an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) in Kolkata. This plan is based on the particular needs of your child and your family. The service provider will figure out what activities and services could best help your child. The types of services include: Physical therapy, Occupational therapy, Psychological services etc. Contact Dr. Jewel for best developmental delay treatment in Kolkata.
Dr. Jewel Chakraborty
Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by damage that occurs to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth. In general, cerebral palsy causes impaired movement associated with abnormal reflexes, floppiness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, abnormal posture, involuntary movements, unsteady walking, or some combination of these.
Cerebral Palsy can be diagnosed at the age of 3 months with 98% of accuracy
Sensory processing disorder (SPD) is a neurological condition that exists when sensory signals don’t get organised into appropriate responses. People with SPD find it difficult to process sensory information (e.g. sound, touch and movement) from the world around them. This means that they may feel sensory input more or less intensely than other people. SPD can therefore impact on a person’s ability to interact in different environments and perform daily activities.
It can be assessed by Sensory Profile assessment or Sensory Processing Measurement scale and managed by Ayer's Sensory Integration Therapy.
About 6-8 % of children appear to be developing in the usual way yet have difficulties with coordination and with learning new skills which affects their function and participation at home, at school and in the playground. Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is the internationally accepted name for this condition.
DCD affects fine and gross motor abilities, balance and posture, basic motor patterns (walking, running, jumping) and in particular skilled action that require practice, planning, attention and working memory (ball skills, drawing and handwriting, sport skills).
An acquired brain injury is defined as:
Damage to the brain, which occurs after birth and is not related to a congenital or a degenerative disease. These impairments may be temporary or permanent and cause partial or functional disability or psychosocial maladjustment.
– World Health Organization (Geneva 1996)
Acquired brain injuries can result in changes to how a person functions in the following areas:
Problems with walking, sitting, transfers, bathing, household tasks, Slurred speech, Chronic pain including headaches, Fatigue and sleep difficulties, Cognitive Changes, Emotional Changes, Social Changes